Horses on treadmills! (c. 1881)
A team-horse treadmill in the Gray’s Horse Powers catalogue, c. 1881. (Smithsonian institution). From the fabulous article at Lapham’s Quarterly.
“There were horse-powered ferryboats; horse-powered hay balers and cotton-gins; even horse-powered chocolate factories. For its first few years, Manhattan’s municipal water system was powered by horses turning a pump wheel. The work did not benefit the horses much: some retired animals continued to circle compulsively.”